The Barrelfish project is performing operating systems research in the context of a new, written-from-scratch kernel, targetted at multi- and many-core processor systems. The OS will use virtualization techniques in some processes or domains in order to support legacy applications and devices, but will export a new OS ABI to most domains and will manage all the hardware itself.
Design principles for end-to-end multicore schedulers
The Multikernel: A new OS architecture for scalable multicore systems.
More about the Barrelfish Operating System